Learning about Lao cuisine in Luang Prabang was a priority for us on our first trip to the charming Mekong River town in Laos. So one of the first things that we did when we arrived in the UNESCO World Heritage listed town was to book a market walk and cooking class with chef Joy of Tamarind restaurant.
It’s safe to say that Lao cuisine is not known very well outside Southeast Asia — unlike Thai and Vietnamese cuisines. Lao food hasn’t reached the level of popularity — and ubiquity — that other Southeast Asian cuisines have in the West. Laos cuisine has stayed as mysterious as the country itself — which is exactly why we were keen on learning about Lao cuisine in Luang Prabang.
Now that Laos is a firm favourite on the traveller’s circuit of Southeast Asia and Luang Prabang its meeting point as a first or final destination for many travellers, Lao cuisine or Laotian cuisine has a chance to win over those who usually return home saying that they now love Thai food or they’re smitten with Vietnamese.
Finding the Lao cuisine that we’d read about, however, proved to be a little bit more difficult in Luang Prabang than we had envisaged. In the restaurants around town there is plenty of French food, Thai, and generic Western or ‘international’ food. But when we visited there were few eateries focused on dishing up traditional — and dare I say it, authentic — recipes of Lao cuisine.
So, intent on learning about Lao cuisine, we did what we usually do, we sought out a local expert.
Learning About Lao Cuisine on a Market Walk in Luang Prabang
One of the first things we do when we arrive somewhere new is seek out someone who has a reputation for knowing the local cuisine. In the case of Luang Prabang, it was Joy Ngeuamboupha of Tamarind restaurant.
A novice monk, DJ, and bartender before he became a chef, Joy opened Tamarind six years ago with his Australian wife Caroline, and started his cooking school soon after. We joined Joy for a morning market tour and cooking class.
“Lao cuisine is bitter, spicy, sour, and salty, not sweet,” Joy tells us emphatically as we arrive at Luang Prabang’s Phousi Market. The market is just starting to quieten down after a busy morning. Business begins here around 4am. Vendors are alternately vying for attention of late shoppers or already counting their money from the morning’s takings.
“Laos have only started to use more sugar and coconut cream since tourists have been coming,” Joy reveals. “Traditionally, Lao people use lots of herbs,” he says, gesturing at the plethora of aromatic greens at the little one-woman herb stand we stop at.
Northern Lao people, according to Joy, use much more herbs than they do in the south and things from the forest, like mushrooms, the favourite being cloud ear mushrooms which are often used in orlarm, a quintessential Luang Prabang stew. Southern Lao food is more like Thai cuisine, sweeter and spicier. Steaming and grilling are common cooking methods.
The more we’re learning about Lao cuisine, the more we realise how similar it is to northern Thai food. Joy tells us that the herbs used in Lao cooking are similar to Thai, but often have subtle differences like the local basil called pak itou which is close to Thai holy basil, but has a slightly more aniseed flavour.
Lao mint, similarly, is milder than Vietnamese mint, and the local Lao limes are a cross between a lime and a lemon. Another often-used Lao ingredient is dill or phak see, which is known as Laotian coriander (cilantro for North Americans). It’s use is particularly notable in the classic Lao dish mok pa, steamed fish in banana leaves.
The local fish sauce padaek is also different to the Thai variety, with a far more pungent fermented flavour. I also noticed the difference immediately when we returned home from the trip and I used Thai fish sauce instead of Lao fish sauce when making the Luang Prabang favourite, the Lao noodle soup, inspired by the hearty soup we tried at Luang Prabang’s best khao soi joint.
Eggplant (aubergine) is also used in Lao cooking, both the small round eggplants (the ones Westerners often leave behind in their bowls of Thai curry!) and the long thin eggplants with a similar texture to those found in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. They’re used in the popular jeow mak keua, a smoky eggplant dip or relish, as well as in the Luang Prabang stew.
While the ingredients more be similar to those of Northern Thailand, one thing we’re learning about Lao cuisine is that it has its own distinctive street food specialties. Joy frequently stops at stalls to share some of the local Lao street food favourites with us.
We sample the sticky rice, which is similar to that found in northern Thailand, but we’ve never had the opportunity to try barbecue buffalo, tongue, heart and skin in Thailand before. The buffalo, which graze along the Mekong River and in the rice paddies around Luang Prabang, is a big feature of Lao cuisine, and we’ll try it in many meals during our stay.
There are other Lao specialties in the market we get to sample, such as dried squirrel, used in squirrel stew, and dried ‘seaweed’, which is actually Mekong River Weed, a crispy snack that is very tasty. There are also some aromas we can’t identify from things that are fermenting all over the market.
There is beautiful fresh produce in abundance that we are familiar with: chillies, kaffir limes, snake beans, basil, coriander, shallots, and those eggplants. Shiny tomatoes are plentiful and they’re important to Lao cuisine as well, being the key ingredient of a fantastic Lao salsa called jeow mak len.
With many dishes, particularly salsas and dips, vegetables are grilled over an open (generally charcoal) flame, before being pounded in a mortar and pestle — one of the most important utensils in a Lao kitchen. The result is generally eaten by dipping little balls of sticky rice into the salsa — the amount you put on each mouthful being dependent upon the heat!
It’s hard to convey just how important sticky rice is to Lao cuisine. You certainly get an understanding when you see sacks of different types of rice being sold at stall after stall at a market such as this. It’s practically the only rice people eat in Laos — aside from well-touristed places like Luang Prabang, where Thai and Chinese influences have seen regular white rice appear with curries.
Most dishes, like jeow mak len and jeow mak keua (the smoky eggplant dip) are made to be eaten with sticky rice. While sticky rice is dipped into stews as well, it’s often an ingredient of the stew too, being burned over an open flame before being added to the dish. And dessert doesn’t count unless there is sticky rice — the purple variety is used with a delicious coconut sauce in the ubiquitous khao gam.
As we continue our walking tour around the market, our attention is soon drawn to a couple of things. Firstly, we see women inspecting stacks of wood, which in the West you would assume to be for firewood, but is actually sakhan, often called chilli wood or pepper wood, used in the classic Luang Prabang stew.
This, and some of the other ingredients used in the stew, such as rattan shoots and buffalo skin, aren’t so readily available outside of Laos, so if like us learning about Lao cuisine is a goal of your trip, then take the opportunity to try the dish when you’re in Luang Prabang.
Another thing we notice is how fussy some customers are about selecting their lemongrass. The reason is a Lao dish called ua si khai — stuffed lemongrass.
With this dish, as we were to learn in Joy’s cooking class, you need to delicately slice through the centre of the stalk of lemongrass to create a ‘basket’ in which to stuff a combination of herbs and minced protein (usually chicken, beef or pork), before frying it in a wok. It’s another must-try Lao dish if you’re intent on learning about Lao cuisine.
Armed with the ingredients Joy has bought — and a head spinning with far too many facts about Lao to take in — we headed to the Tamarind cooking school for some lessons in cooking Lao cuisine.
Tamarind Lao Cooking Course
You can sign up for the Tamarind Lao cooking course online: www.tamarindlaos.com Classes are held 3-5 times a week and should be booked a few days in advance. A course costs 250,000 KIP or US$31 per person at today’s exchange rate. If you only want to do the market tour, it costs 100,000 KIP (US$12.50) per person and requires a minimum of four people. And if you don’t want to cook, they also have a cafe and offer a fishing experience.
Where to Stay in Luang Prabang
Luang Prabang has an abundance of atmospheric boutique hotels that ooze history, including splendid colonial-era residences of late kings, a former royal summer house, and lodgings located in the old French Governor’s residence, including the 3 Nagas, Maison Souvannaphoum, Belmond La Residence Phou Vao, and Satri House. For more, see our guide to Luang Prabang’s best boutique hotels. Luang Prabang is also home to luxury hotels such as Luang Say Residence and Amantaka, which offers a cooking class on an organic farm. And when you’re back home, try our Lao khao soi recipe and let us know you think.