Cambodian Fish Amok Recipe – an Authentic Steamed Fish Curry in the Old Style
Our Cambodian fish amok recipe is traditional – an authentic steamed fish curry made to a recipe from an older generation of cooks who believe this refined dish is a Royal Khmer specialty dating back to the Khmer Empire.
This classic Cambodian fish amok recipe for a traditional steamed fish curry comes courtesy of a respected family of old cooks whose mothers and grandmothers made the dish during a time when Cambodian women thought nothing of spending a full day preparing a family feast.
Our Cambodian fish amok recipe isn’t for the watery fish amok curry or sloppy fish amok you might have eaten in a Siem Reap restaurant, which can be made in minutes in a wok. To make this authentic steamed fish curry from scratch, allow at least an hour.
Cambodian Fish Amok Recipe
What is Cambodian Fish Amok – And What Is It Not
Cambodian cuisine must be Southeast Asia’s most under-appreciated and most misunderstood and one of its specialties, fish amok or amok trei (also spelt amok trey) in Khmer, must be one of its most bewildering dishes, seemingly served in an array of forms, shapes and colours.
A traditional steamed fish curry – ‘amok’ refers to the process of steaming – it should have a texture that food writers have described as a mousse, mousseline, soufflé, and custard. We’ve also seen it called a pâté and terrine. It’s most definitely in the realm of the former, but it in no way resembles the latter.
Most food-loving travellers to Cambodia fall in love with fish amok. It’s incredibly delicious – it’s one of my favourite dishes – but it’s also adorable when presented in a banana leaf basket or coconut shell, as Chef Kethana at Sugar Palm restaurant does, with a drizzle of coconut cream and finely sliced kaffir lime leaves and chilli on top.
Fish amok is beloved by Cambodians. So much so that it’s often called Cambodia’s national dish – despite the fact that Cambodians probably don’t eat it often themselves. This is a special occasion dish. When it’s made in the old style it’s rich and luxuriant and seems to incite feelings of nostalgia for an old way of life, even if it’s a life that many have never known.
Older Cambodian cooks believe that amok trei is a Royal Khmer dish due to how refined it can be, its complexity of flavour, and the time-consuming preparation when it’s made correctly – which requires pounding the kroeung (herb/spice paste), the basis for the dish, and steaming it for 20-30 minutes until it’s firm to touch.
Despite its regal origins, amok trei is a dish that you’ll see sold in banana baskets on trays in markets and on the street. Although, I’ve never been as impressed by the take-away version. The fast food variety of amok trei is more like Thailand’s hor mok pla (also spelt haw mok pla) and the Nyonya otak otak sold in markets.
Fish amok is often compared to the Indonesian otak otak, which is actually more similar to the Cambodian street food snack called song vac or sang vak (also written as sangvak – ‘ang’ is pronounced as ‘ong’ in Khmer), a ground fish paste, wrapped in a banana leaf parcel and grilled over charcoal.
Our Cambodian fish amok recipe comes from the matriarchs of an old Cambodian family – several little old ladies who are the daughters of a long-gone generation of cooks, including a cook to a king. These women take their food seriously, thinking nothing of recruiting young female relatives and neighbours for a full day of preparation for a meal.
For this older generation, their way of cooking Cambodian food – or rather, Khmer food – is the only way to cook what they believe to be the authentic food of Cambodia, which for them was at its best in the pre-Khmer Rouge era.
To Steam or Not to Steam – If It’s Not Steamed It’s Not Amok, It’s Curry
When we informed our old lady cooks that it’s possible to see fish amok in Siem Reap restaurants that hasn’t been steamed and that it’s served as watery as a soup or at best as a curry, they were aghast. When we revealed that it’s also offered with chicken, beef, pork, vegetarian, and tofu, they were even more horrified. I love how Terence tells this story here in Ruining Amok, the National Dish of Cambodia.
It should be noted, however, that while this is generally just a short-cut to feed tired, impatient and hungry tourists, Cambodians are also known to make amok trei in a curry form, particularly poorer, hard-working Cambodians with less time on their hands. As Terence puts it in that post, who wants to watch a dish steam for 30 minutes after working in the rice fields all day?
I noticed that one food blogger wrote that some Cambodians don’t steam fish amok because they don’t have “steaming equipment”. While the traditional basket steamers aren’t used for fish amok (they’re used for sticky rice), they’ve probably been used for over a thousand years and can be hand-woven in a few hours. Not a lot of ‘equipment’ is needed to steam something here.
Even the poorest Cambodian home has a clay brazier in their rustic outdoor kitchen, which is often a bamboo hut or low wooden prep table in the breezy space under the house. The brazier is another piece of ‘equipment’ that’s been used for a couple of thousand years, maybe longer. It features in the bas reliefs on the walls at the Angkor temples.
Cambodian Fish Amok Short-Cuts and Substitutes
We’ve established that steaming is essential if you’re going to make this Cambodian fish amok recipe the old way, but there are a few time-saving measures for busy home-cooks and we need to tell you about substitutes.
While we believe that kroeung tastes better when it’s made in a mortar and pestle, and I personally love few things more than hearing the sound and smelling the fragrance of a fresh herb and spice paste being made, you can save a lot of time by using a blender instead.
Fresh coconut cream and milk can of course be substituted with the tin variety if you don’t have coconuts or access to fresh grated coconut to press your own coconut cream and milk.
For this Cambodian fish amok recipe our little old lady cooks prefer goby fish, snakehead fish or catfish – all freshwater fish from the Tonle Sap or Great Lake. Most cookbooks written in the West suggest a firm white fish such as cod or snapper. In cooking classes in Siem Reap, cooking instructors tell participants they can use anything from barramundi to salmon. David Thompson in Thai Food suggests whiting, blue eyed cod or perch for haw mok. Chef Kethana at Sugar Palm also makes a heavenly prawn amok.
Our little old ladies have one of the young assistants massage the kroeung into the fish fillets for up to an hour and let it rest before slicing it. For more intense flavour, after combining the kroeung and fish you could skip the massage and leave it to marinate in the fridge for a bit.
Most Cambodian cooks will use their beloved prahok (fermented fish) instead of shrimp paste (kapi in Khmer). We’ve also seen young cooking instructors add “seasoning” (i.e. MSG) and/or Knorr’s chicken powder stock cubes, which must have their grandmothers rolling in their graves.
One ingredient in this Cambodian fish amok recipe that’s difficult to find a substitute for is slok ngor – also written as nhor (‘slok’ means herb). Nhor or noni leaf (morinda citrifolia) is what gives amok trei its distinctive taste. Traditional Cambodian recipes call specifically for young nhor leaf.
Recipes written for a Western readership suggest substituting the noni leaf with everything from kale to spinach. Chef Joannès Rivière of Siem Reap’s Cuisine Wat Damnak restaurant recommends Swiss chard in A Culinary Journey in Cambodia (see link end of this post), a cookbook produced by Sala Bai Hotel School. Although note that this is a recipe for a fish amok curry and is not steamed.
A Note on the Colours of Cambodia’s Fish Amok
One thing we often get asked about is the colour that an authentic Cambodian fish amok should be. If you’ve travelled around Cambodia, you’ll notice that fish amok can range from a yellow-green to orange-brown colour. Chef Kethana’s is more of that curry-brown shade with a red tinge due to the chilli, while the amok trei we see in markets, especially in villages, is often yellow-green.
The yellow-green fish amok is made with either the yellow kroeung paste or kroeung samlar m’chou in Khmer (made with lemongrass, galangal, kaffir lime zest, turmeric, garlic, shallots) or the green kroeung paste or kroeung prahoeur (which is heavier on the lemongrass, has kaffir lime zest, turmeric, garlic, and shallots, the addition of fingerroot/Chinese keys, but no galangal).
The orange-red fish amok uses the same yellow kroeung paste as a base, but has the addition of red chilli. Note that fish amok it is not normally made with red kroeung or kroeung samlar cari in Khmer, which has the yellow kroeung base of lemongrass, galangal, kaffir lime zest, turmeric, garlic, shallots, plus the addition of coriander seeds, cumin seeds and dried red chilli, and shrimp paste or prahok. These additional spices would make the amok trei very intense and it’s already rich enough.
- 500 grams of white fish (goby, snakehead or catfish preferable; or snapper, whiting, cod, perch), skinned, boned and thinly sliced
- 3 tbsp yellow kroeung (herb/spice paste – see recipe here)
- 2 dried red chillies, soaked in water until soft, seeded and drained or a tsp of red chilli paste
- 1 tbsp fish sauce
- 1 tsp shrimp paste
- 2 tsp palm sugar
- ½ cup first press coconut milk or tinned coconut cream
- 2 eggs, beaten
- 1 pinch of salt
- ¼ cup nhor/noni leaves (morinda citriforlia), shredded
- 1 tbsp first press coconut milk or tinned coconut cream
- 1 tsp kaffir lime zest or finely sliced lime leaves
- 1 medium sized red chilli or red capscium, finely sliced
- Prepare the yellow kroeung as per the recipe on the link above, and add the red chilli and pound well into the mixture. If you don’t have a mortar and pestle you can blend it all in a food processor.
- Combine the kroeung, fish and other ingredients, but not the noni leaves. To taste chunks of fish only lightly combine, but for a smooth texture, desirable by some cooks, combine well by stirring vigorously with a wooden spoon or spatula.
- Test your level of seasoning by frying a spoon of the mixture (or zapping it in the microwave). It should be well balanced and taste a little fishy, a little salty, slightly sweet, a tad spicy, and rich and creamy. Adjust as necessary by adding a pinch of salt or sugar, fish sauce, or even a little chilli.
- Place a few noni leaves on the bottom of your ramikens, coconut shell or banana leaf baskets. If using banana leaf baskets, make ahead of time (see below).
- Add the mixture almost to the top and use a spoon or spatula to flatten out, drizzle a teaspoon of coconut cream and sprinkle some finely sliced kaffir lime leaves on top. Save some for a final garnish.
- Steam for 20-30 minutes then check. The fish amok should be cooked through and firm to touch but still retain a moistness. It should not be dry. When it’s almost done add the rest of the coconut cream on the top and steam for a few more minutes.
- Garnish with the remaining kaffir lime leaf slices and finely sliced red chillies or red capscium if you don’t like chilli.
- Serve immediately at the centre of the table with rice on each guest’s plate and they can help themselves as they might a curry if eating family style. If you’ve made smaller individual portions for each guests then serve rice at the centre of the table or in small dishes on the side.
How to Make Banana Leaf Baskets
If you happen to have a banana tree in your backyard… clean and soften your banana leaves in warm water and then pat dry. Use an upturned round plate or cake tin to trace a roughly 20-25cm in diametre circle onto a leaf and cut it out with scissors. The size varies depending on how large you wish them to be, whether you’re serving your fish amok family style for all guests to help themselves (when you’ll want to create a large banana leaf bowl), as an appetiser or main course, so you’ll need to experiment. Lay the cut-out flat and create a square bottom by raising one side at a time, folding each corner around onto the next side. Secure each side with half a wooden toothpick. (We’ve seen young cooks staple them but this doesn’t look pretty). Trim the tops so they’re even.
Further Reading on Cambodian Cuisine
We often get asked which Cambodian Cookbooks we recommend. They may not be the hippest looking cookbooks but Cambodian cooks believe the most authentic Cambodian recipes are to be found in Narin Seng Jameson’s Cooking the Cambodian Way and Hem Meakphal’s The Book of Khmer Cooking (only available in Cambodia). Sorey Long and Kanika Linden’s Authentic Cambodian Recipes has been the most comprehensive cookbook but it has also been adapted so much for its mainly American market that our little old lady cooks didn’t recognise some recipes. (Strangely it has suddenly disappeared off Amazon; we’re investigating). The Sala Bai Hotel School‘s Culinary Journey in Cambodia by Chef Joannès Rivière has super-easy recipes, makes a nice souvenir and proceeds support the school, but again, this is only available in Cambodia.
We used this Cambodian fish amok recipe to make mini fish amoks for our contemporary Cambodian feast. The small sizes are not only cute, they steam quickly. Do let us know in the Comments below if you this Cambodian fish amok recipe as we’d love to know how it turns out for you.
Pictured: Chef Kethana’s fish amok from Sugar Palm restaurant, Siem Reap, which for us is the finest fish amok in Cambodia.
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